&&&&General biodiversity




Indonesia (april 2009): Eyes on the Forest and Projeto Puma

Eyes on the Forest has acknowledged that expeditions organized by Projeto Puma will benefit conservation efforts in Sumatra.
Eyes on the Forest
is a 'coalition of three Indonesian environmental organizations in Riau, Sumatra: WWF Indonesia's Tesso Nilo Programme, Jikalahari ("Forest Rescue Network Riau") and Walhi Riau (“Friends of the Earth Indonesia”).
Its investigative nature provide key and the most up-to-date information on the state of the forests in Indonesia, denouncing deforestation and its consequences. Recently it has demonstrated that increase in human deaths from tiger attacks are linked with deforestation caused by Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) and its associated company, Sinar Mas Group (SMG).


Participate in the tiger
research expedition

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Sumatran tiger
main prey
Photos taken by camera traps

Sambar deer (rusa)
Cervus unicolor

Pig-tailed macaque
Macaca nemestrina

Wild pig
Sus scrofa

Mouse deer
Tragulus javanicus

Malayan tapir
Tapirus indicus

Sumatran tiger

A Sumatran tiger 'caught' in a camera-trap.
Copyright WWF Indonesia.

These are the last surviving island tigers. Nowhere has the tiger crisis been more evident than in Indonesia, the world’s largest archipelago. Indonesia is a forgotten paradise with more than 17,000 islands.
Indonesia was once home to three of the world’s eight known subspecies of tiger. Two of those, however, the Bali and Javan tiger have already disappeared forever. Unlike it is often publicized, not all the good intentions and efforts from many national and international organizations have been enough to change this situation. The Sumatran tiger is currently considered Critically Endangered, and its fate is likely to be the same if we do not act now.
Deforestation (one of the highest in the world), persecution for tiger meat and bone (for Chinese medicine), and tiger attacks on people, are some of the problems that sum up against the survival of tigers..

We are currently setting up a research project on Sumatran tigers. Worldwide efforts so far have not been enough to avoid Sumatran tiger decline. You can join expeditions and do your share to try to change this situation.


Issues on Sumatran tiger conservation

Conservation is only effective if local communities participate. The attractive prices of tiger parts and the threat it represent to livehoods, however, give little reason for local people to protect it. A study conducted by the Sumatran Tiger Project in Way Kambas National has identified that neighboring villagers perceive few benefits from the park, which may as well represent the feeling of locals toward tiger conservation elsewhere in Sumatra, reporting that ‘unless issues are addressed, conflicts between the park and villagers are likely to escalate and undermine efforts to protect southeast Sumatra’s last tigers’ (Nyhus et al., 1999). In fact, tiger poaching has not shown signs of reduction in Sumatra (Shepherd and Magnus, 2004), and small populations of tigers, which are the majority in Sumatra, have been demonstrated to be vulnerable even if few individuals are removed each year (Linkie et al., 2006).

Similarly, density of tigers have been shown to be positively related to that of their prey (Karanth and Stith, 1999), and prey decline may often be a factor more important than direct persecution in driving tiger populations to extinction (Karanth et al., 2004). Effective tiger conservation strategies need thus to take into account the conservation of tiger's prey. Local communities must somehow perceive benefits for protection of tiger's prey.

Our expeditions will attempt to address these conservation issues by promoting research participation of people from several regions of the globe, so that important data is acquired while demonstrating to locals that the presence of species may bring socioeconomic benefits to them.

Karanth, K. U. and B. M. Stith. 1999. Prey depletion as determinant of tiger population viability. Pp. 100-113 in Riding the tiger – tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes (J. Seindensticker, S. Christie, P. Jackson, eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Karanth, K. U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar N.S.; Link, W.A.; Hines, J.E. 2004. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 101 (14): 4854-4858.

Linkie, M.; Chapron, G.; Martyr, D.J.; Holden, J.; Leader-Williams, N. 2006. Assessing the viability of tiger subpopulations in a fragmented landscape. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 576–586.

Nyhus, P.J., Sumianto and Tilson, R. 1999. The tiger – human dimension in southeast Sumatra. Pp 144-145 in Riding the tiger – tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes (Seindesticker J., Christie S., Jackson P., eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Sanderson, E; Forrest, J.; Loucks, C.; Ginsberg, J.; Dinerstein, E.; Seindesticker, J.; Leimgruber, P.; Songer, M.; Heydlauff, A.; O'Brien, T.; Bryja, G.; Wikramanayake, E.; Klenzendorf, S. 2006. Setting Priorities for the Conservation and Recovery of Wild Tigers: 2005–2015. WCS, WWF, SMITHONIAN, STF. New York – Washington, D.C 206pp. Download. 22,7 MB.

Shepherd, C.R. and Magnus, N. 2004. Nowhere to hide: The trade in Sumatran Tiger. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia. 108pp. Download. 935 Kb.


GTI newsletter n6 - one year after
the tiger Summit

Sumatran Tiger 'Putri' relocated to Sembilang National Park in South Sumatra this week
August 03, 2011

This week Asia Pulp & Paper (APP), released a youtube video of a sumatran tiger relocation which had their participation, an attempt to express their commitment to the conservation of the natural world. This is at least controversial, as APP is claimed by many local and global NGOs to destroy Sumatras' forest to replace with their plantations, and had its FSC certification withdrawn. Nonetheless, Aida Greenbury, APP's Managing Director and her local teams are trying to be convincing in their actions towards conservation.


Female tiger with cubs recorded and filmed for the first time in Central Sumatra by WWF/ PHKA


Tiger habitat:

Nestle and Unilever ban palm oil from Indonesia
March 18, 2010

Palm oil companies are known to convert Indonesia's pristine forests to palm oil plantations. A major effort from Greenpace has convinced international companies the need to ban this product, shaking the palm oil companies of Indonesia. Now Greenpeace wants Nestle's third party suppliers to follow up.
Jakarta Globe.

Indonesian Ecolabel Institute asked to stop issuing Sustainable Management of Forest to companies that are converting native forests
Bogor, February 9, 2009.

Two national NGOs, Forest Watch Indonesia (FWI) and Telapak, urged the Indonesian Ecolabel Institute (LEI) today to stop issuing Sustainable Management of Forest Estate (PHTL) to Industrial Timber Estates (HTI), which convert natural forest or open up peat ecosystems during their operations. Read more.


Some hope towards reduction in
the deforestation of Indonesian rainforests,
home of Sumatran tigers
November 19, 2009

The Indonesian government today temporarily suspended the license of Asia Pacific Resources International Holding Limited (APRIL) for developing an area of forest and peatland in Sumatra, says Greenpeace.

Further, Members of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), an initiative developing criteria to improve the environmental performance of palm oil, agreed to declare the Bukit Tigapuluh Ecosystem in Sumatra a 'high conservation value area', the same area that Projeto Puma is developing a project to protect Sumatran tigers.


Tiger rescued from poachers in
Malaysia perishes from injuries

October 29, 2009

Hunters in tiger range use snares (wire) to catch wild animals. The more the animal struggles to free himself, the more the snare tightens up. This seems to be a quite common situation. In Sumatra, Indonesia, a three-legged tiger was recently photographed wandering in the wilderness, a victim that survived the deadly trap.

Click here for more information.


WWF Elephant Flying Squad Joins Global Day of Climate Action

For Release: Oct 26, 2009

Riau, Central Sumatra, Indonesia – Four adult elephants and two calves from WWF-Indonesia’s Elephant Flying Squad gathered on Saturday October 24, 2009, in Riau Province to carry banners calling for urgent protection of the remaining forests of Sumatra. Riau has one of the fastest deforestation rates in the world, threatening some of the most endangered species on the planet, including Sumatran elephants and tigers. Click here for the full report.

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